In 1997, Clinton proposed an executive order stipulating that federal authorities should consider the use of LTOs for Federally funded projects.  Republicans strongly opposed it and believed it would limit federal projects to union entrepreneurs alone. Clinton abandoned the executive proposal, but issued a memorandum on June 5, 1997 inviting federal departments to consider the use of LTOs for “large and important” projects.  The memorandum required government authorities to re-extend each project to decide whether a PLA would allow the authority to increase efficiency and reduce costs.   The D.C. United Stadium Project Labor Agreement can be viewed here: thetruthaboutplas.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/DC-United-Stadium-Project-Labor-Agreement.pdf. To learn more about D.C. United Stadium PLA here: thetruthaboutplas.com/2013/09/10/mayor-grays-project-labor-agreement-on-new-dc-united-stadium-deserves-a-red-card/. 2.
By other means, bidders, suppliers, contractors, subcontractors or operators are discriminatory because they become or remain signatories or they comply with other agreements with one or more work organizations regarding the same project or other related projects. The PTAs are under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), 29 U.S.C. Sections 8 (e) and f) of the NLRA, 29 U.S.C No. 158 (e) and f) make specific exceptions to other NRL requirements to allow employers to enter into pre-lease agreements with construction unions.  The agreements have been used in the United States since the 1930s and were first discussed in the 1980s for their use in publicly funded projects. In these cases, the public authorities have made the signing of ATPs a prerequisite for working on taxpayer-funded projects. This type of ALP, known as a government-mandated ALP, is different from a PLA that is voluntarily carried out by public or private works contractors – as NNRA allows – and a PLA that has been mandated by a private agency for a privately funded construction project. Executive orders adopted since 1992 have had an impact on the use of mandatory PLAs for federal construction projects, and the last order issued by President Barack Obama in February 2009 encourages their use by federal authorities. The use of PLA is rejected by a number of groups that claim that the agreements discriminate 30/10 contractors and do not improve efficiency or reduce the costs of construction projects.